Tag: lawyer

CBP-Detroit Currency Seizures Exceed $5 million for 2013

Customs in Detroit, my “home” port, reports that enforcement of currency reporting violations are up 24% in terms of value of currency seized over last year.

During the first three quarters of fiscal year 2013, which began Oct. 1, 2012, more than $5,199,000 in currency has been seized at ports of entry within the Detroit Field Office. This represents an increase of 24% compared to this time last fiscal year. Recent cases, such as the $73,000 seized from a pair of Canadian women that was hidden in their under garments, with one of the women being arrested for bulk cash smuggling, highlight the need to inform the public so that they can avoid having their currency seized.

Great Lakes Customs Law is involved in 17 of those cases, involving around $250,393 total seized currency since October 1, 2012. This figures accounts for roughly 5% of the value of all the cases of currency seizures in the port of Detroit so far for fiscal year 2013.

If you have had currency seized and are contemplating what to do next, please make use of the other information I make available on this website or call my office at (734) 855-4999 or e-mail us through our contact page. We are able to assist with currency seizures around the country, including Chicago, Atlanta, New York, Los Angeles, Orlando and many other places, and not just locally in Detroit.

$19,000 money seizures by Customs in Philadelphia

It’s nice to see news releases about things other than currency seizures that occur at the U.S.-Mexican border involving bulk cash smuggling. This particular one is from Philadelphia, and the original story is available¬†here. Before we get to the meat of the story, let me point out a few things:


First of all, note that “surrendering” is an interest choice of words; if not just poor word choice by the author, it suggests that money was turned over voluntarily rather than¬†seized, perhaps in recognition of some wrongdoing. I have never come across anyone who just surrenders their money to customs and then is instructed to file a petition. I have had Customs allege client’s had “abandoned” the money that was seized, but why the curious choice of words in either case I do not know.

Second, the story mentions that the Indian man paid a $1,000 civil penalty. This means that the man must have been travelling with sufficient documentation to prove legitimate source and no connection to criminal activity, and further, that he had a legitimate intended use for the money — necessary elements to¬†responding to a notice of currency seizure. In some circumstances, where the amount transported is less than $25,000 Customs can eliminate the need to file a petition for the money by mitigating the seizure on-site.

The story, with my emphasis in bold:

Philadelphia – A U.S. citizen learned the importance of being truthful on U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) declarations and to CBP officers after surrendering $19,000 for violating federal currency reporting requirements Sunday at Philadelphia International Airport.

During a secondary inspection, the man, who arrived from Germany, reported possessing no money upon his return to the United States. CBP officers explained the currency reporting requirements to which the man said he understood, then verbally and in writing declared no money. CBP officers then discovered $19,417 in U.S. dollars and 405 Euros. CBP officers returned $417 in U.S. dollars and the 405 Euros as humanitarian relief, advised the man as to the process to petition for the remaining currency, and released him.

[ . . . ]

‚ÄúCustoms and Border Protection officers offer travelers multiple opportunities to truthfully report their currency, but those who refuse to comply with federal currency reporting requirements face severe consequences, such as hefty penalties, having their currency seized, or potential criminal charges,‚ÄĚ said Allan Martocci, CBP port director for the Area Port of Philadelphia. ‚ÄúThe easiest way to keep your currency is to truthfully report it.‚ÄĚ

CBP officers assessed a $1,000 civil penalty to a second traveler, an Indian man who arrived Saturday from Germany after officers discovered $17,750 in U.S. dollars and 14,330 in Indian Rupees in his possession. The combined currency equated to$18,007 in U.S. dollars.

International travelers who arrive or depart the United States in possession of more than $10,000 or equivalent foreign currency are required to report all currency to CBP officers and complete a Treasury Department Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) form.

Do not decide how to respond to a CAFRA Notice without first consulting an attorney. Any mistake or error in judgment you make can cost you dearly. The Petition process is a legal process. The petition itself is and should always be a legal document, no different than in any other legal proceeding, that contains detailed factual narrative, what led to the seizure, a review of the relevant law, regulations and Custom’s own guidelines concerning the criteria for remission. When the facts allow for it, our Petition will always include a strong argument for return of the money in full, or even when there is a valid basis for the currency seizure, a strong argument for the money to be returned upon payment of a fine in the smallest amount of money possible, rather than forfeiture of all your money.

If you have had currency seized and are contemplating what to do next, please make use of the other information I make available on this website or call my office at (734) 855-4999 or e-mail us through our contact page. We are able to assist with currency seizures around the country, including Chicago, Atlanta, New York, Los Angeles, Orlando and many other places, and not just locally in Detroit.


Currency smuggler tries laundering money

Pardon the clever title, but a news release from U.S. Customs & Border Protection tells the tale of a man who tried to smuggle more than $50,000 in a laundry detergent box out of the United States:

CBP officers and Border Patrol agents were conducting a southbound inspection operation at the 

PresidioCurrency Smuggler Laundering Box crossing when [ . . . ] a 2011 GMC Sierra pick-up driven by a male U.S. citizen approached the checkpoint. The driver and vehicle were selected for an intensive exam. During inspection of the vehicle and baggage the officers noticed tampering on an unopened box of detergent. Further inspection of the box revealed currency bundles wrapped in plastic bags hidden within the soap. CBP officers seized the money and vehicle. No arrests were made and the investigation continues.

‚ÄúCBP officers are working hard to stop the illegal movement of guns, ammunition and unreported currency,‚ÄĚ said David Lambrix, U.S. Customs and Border Protection Presidio port director ‚ÄúTravelers who do not follow federal currency reporting requirements run the risk of losing their currency and may potentially face criminal charges.‚ÄĚ

As you can see from the last paragraph, it is stories like these that really give Customs a chance to get on their soap box about their mission, money laundering, and the currency reporting requirements.

If you have had your money seized by Customs, please contact our office today and speak to an attorney experienced in customs law and currency seizures by calling (734) 855-4999, or e-mail us through our contact page.


San Juan CBP Seizes $43,000 in Unreported Money

CBP reports on recent current seizures in the U.S. territory of Puerto Rico, in part stating:

U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) officers seized more than $43,500 in unreported currency at the Luis Munoz Marin Airport last Wednesday, May 15, 2013, in two separate incidents.

While conducting outbound operations on a JetBlue flight destined to the Dominican Republic, a CBP K9 alerted to a passenger, who was then interviewed by CBP officers. During the interview, the passenger stated he was transporting $5,000. During his cbp_tapecarry-on inspection various bundles of currency were found hidden in different locations. A total of $21,378 in currency was found hidden, including inside his socks. The currency was seized.

Departing on the same flight, a different passenger was informed about the currency reporting procedures in his native Spanish language, and he stated that he was transporting $2,000. Examination of the passenger’s carry-on bag revealed additional bundles of U.S. currency, which were concealed inside his clothing. The passenger also failed to report around $9,000 concealed inside clothing on his checked luggage. The total amount of U.S. currency seized was $22,160.

(Emphasis added).

This is interesting because it demonstrates that the currency reporting law applies equally to the U.S. territory of Puerto Rico. Moreover, it should be noted that the fact the the people in these cases hid the money inside articles of clothing will also give rise to additional grounds for seizure, beyond mere failure to file a report, of bulk cash smuggling by virtue of concealing it.
If you have had currency seized, please read our article about responding to a currency seizure to better inform yourself of the process. You should contact our office in order to discussion your legal matter further, the prospect of getting your money returned, potential penalties, and the types of evidence needed in order to get your money back. We can be reached at (734) 855-4999 or by the methods shown on our contact page, and are able to help get your money back no matter your location.


Customs seizure of smuggled money in Arizona

A news release from Customs & Border Protection goes into some detail on a recent money seizure in Arizona. The release says that Customs officer’s seized $10,744 in unreported money/currency from a 22-year old guy with a valuable pair of shoes (see below. sometimes  I just like re-posting these new releases for the pictures they provide of smuggling attempts).

U.S. Customs andCustoms Seizure Arizona Shoe Border Protection officers and Border Patrol agents conducting outbound inspections referred a 22-year-old man for further inspection. During a search of the man, officers found $10,744 in U.S. currency concealed in his shoes. The currency was seized and the man was arrested and referred to U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s Homeland Security Investigations.

Individuals arrested may be charged by complaint, the method by which a person is charged with criminal activity, which raises no inference of guilt. An individual is presumed innocent unless and until competent evidence is presented to a jury that establishes guilt beyond a reasonable doubt.

Unlike the usual cases I handled where the unreported seized money is part of a civil seizure, this apparently was a criminal seizure. While any violation can give rise to criminal penalties, usually if there is no suspicion of criminal activity the assistant U.S. attorney will not press charges.

In fact, before sometimes before a person is a released after being detained for bulk cash smuggling, a failure to report currency over $10,000, or a structuring violation the seizing officer will call and explain the circumstances to the assistant U.S. attorney, who may either accept, defer, decline prosecution. Of course, if prosecution is initially declined, it would not prevent the government from changing their mind and pursuing criminal charges should they find new evidence in the future.

The risk of criminal prosecution, and the complicated process of actually getting your money through the petition process, is a good reason to give our office a call at (734) 855-4999, or e-mail us if you have had your money seized by Customs, even if you feel it was innocently done. We provide more reasons for hiring an attorney in our tutorial on the currency seizure process.

Regulated Wood Packaging Material Customs Violations

In 2007, Customs & Border Protection began enforcing requirements that regulated wood packaging material imported into the United States mandating that it meet certain requirements. Although an “old” issue, importers still run afoul of these requirements and get themselves into trouble. These requirements have the effect of limiting the risk that wood packaging material imported into the United States will introduce foreign insects into the U.S. ecosystem that could be harmful to the environment and U.S. industries, particularly the lumber industry and native tree populations in our forests.

What is wood packaging material, and what is regulated?

First, it should be noted that there is a distinction between wood packaging material and regulated  wood packaging material. Wood packaging material is just wood or wood products, excluding paper products, used in support, protecting, or carrying a commodity, including dunnage. 7 CFR 314.40-1.

Regulated wood packaging material  is defined as:

Wood packaging material other than manufactured wood materials, loose wood packaging materials, and wood pieces less than 6 mm thick in any dimension, that are used or for use with cargo to prevent damage, including, but not limited to, dunnage, crating, pallets, packing blocks, drums, cases, and skids.

7 CFR 314.40-1.

Although not really made clear in the regulations, for purposes of enforcement Customs probably considers manufactured wood materials to woods like plywood, fiber board, whiskey barrels, wine barrels, and veneer. Regulated wood packaging materials include materials like dunnage, crating, pallets, packing blocks, cases, skids, and other wood that is dry and loose (as in the case of sawdust or wood shavings) and is not less than 6mm thick (as in the case of certain shims).

What must be done to wood packaging material so that it is compliant?

The requirements can be complicated in certain situations, and there are a limited number of exemptions, especially for trade with Canada and Mexico. But generally speaking, the wood must be treated and marked. 7 CFR 319.40-3. The wood must be marked in a “in a visible location on each article, preferably on at least two opposite sides of the article, with a legible and permanent mark that indicates that the article meets” the requirements of the law.¬†The mark looks something like shown below, but the letters and numbers will vary depending on the circumstances (i.e., origin and type of treatment).

WPM Mark
WPM Mark

The means of treatment is set out in 7 CFR 305, and consists of heat treatment or a type of fumigation through chemical treatment with methyl bromide.

What if regulated wood packaging material is untreated or unmarked?

If your wood packaging material is regulated wood packaging material, meaning that there is no exception to the treatment and marking requirements, then it is violative wood packaging materials if it is not both marked and treated. A violation can either be because the treatment was not done, because the mark is not present, or because the mark is illegible. Even if the wood is actually treated but is not stamped, it is still violative. Even if you somehow know for a fact that the wood is not infested, it is still violative.

As such, it is most likely that you will be required to immediately re-export the wood packaging material out of the country. This will be done through the issuance of an Emergency Action Notification that gives you a certain period of time to re-export your entire shipment.

After receiving a notice of the presence of a violative wood packaging material, whether verbally or through an Emergency Action Notification, it is important to move very quickly. Failure to be obey the deadline given in the Emergency Action Notification can result in additional penalties.

Is there an alternative to re-exporting my merchandise?

It is possible to get permission from the Port Director to separate the violative wood packaging material from the commodity (e.g., separate the merchandise from its pallets), and re-export only the violative wood packaging material and enter the commodity. However, that is a complicated process with its own legal procedures, involving meeting certain requirements, demonstrating certain safeguards, paying certain costs, and filing an Application to Separate Violative Wood Packaging Material directly with the port director.

Obviously, this Application to Separate can be granted or denied. Filing of the application does not suspend the time period in which you must comply with the Emergency Action Notification to re-export. And if denied, you will still need to re-export. So, application to separate should prepared and filed as soon as possible. If the application is not successful, you will be re-exporting your commodities.

What are the ramifications of importing, or attempting to import, violative wood packaging materials?

Apart from the requirement to re-export the materials and your merchandise, and the costs associated with that come from your supply chain and your inventory problem, there are penalties that can be imposed by Customs for this type of violation.

Customs will usually send a Notice of Penalty or Liquidated Damages to the importer involved with the wood packaging material violation for violations of 7 CFR 319.40 as being an importation, or attempted importation, contrary to law under 19 USC 1595a, or as commercial fraud or negligence under 19 USC 1592. As in the case with all customs penalties, there are guidelines for reducing the amount of money customs seeks in penalty. This can only be done by filing a petition for mitigation.

What do I do next?

If you have been informed that you wood packaging material is in violation of the law and needs to be re-exported, immediately call or e-mail office at (734) 855-4999 and we can prepare an application to separate violative wood packaging material so that, if it is granted, you do not have to undergo the time and expense of re-exporting the merchandise you are trying to import.

If you have received a notice of penalty or liquidated damages and are being told you must as a result of the violation, immediately call or e-mail our office at (734) 855-4999 and we can prepare a petition for mitigation of the penalty amount.

Customs seizes $360,000 in Unreported Money

A May 3rd news release from Customs & Border Protection details a recent money seizure in Texas. The release says that Customs officer’s seized $360,025 in unreported currency from a male Mexican national when attempting to exit the U.S. and enter Mexico.

What is interesting about this story is there is what is not said, because these news releases usually give some indication that they suspect there was some connection with illegal drug activity. This, however, only says what I have written about many times; that a failure to report currency over $10,000 (failure to report), or concealing more than $10,000 with an intent to evade the reporting requirement (bulk cash smuggling) is illegal.

Another curious aspect is that the $360,000 was concealed in 36 separate packages, which means that each package had about $10,000 in it. I don’t know if that’s just a convenient amount to put in a package, or if there were supposed to be 36 different transactions taking the money across the border by different people or at different times. ¬†That would be a structuring violation, anyway.

Here is the full story:

The vehicle, driven by a 23-year-old male Mexican citizen from San Luis Potosi, Mexico, was selected for further inspection and was referred to secondary. During the process of the secondary inspection, officers noted irregularities within the vehicle and further inspection revealed multiple hidden packages of unreported U.S. currency. Officer discovered and seized a total of 36 packages, which totaled $360,025 in unreported U.S. currency and also seized the vehicle.

CBP-OFO arrested the male traveler and subsequently released him to the custody of Homeland Security Investigations (HSI) agents for further investigation.

‚ÄúThis outstanding seizure of unreported currency was accomplished due to excellent teamwork from our CBP-OFO officers,‚ÄĚ said Efrain Solis Jr., port director, Hidalgo/Pharr/Anzalduas. ‚ÄúPeople who fail to declare currency in excess of $10,000 entering or leaving the country will face penalties or be subject to having CBP seize all of the unreported currency.‚ÄĚ

It is not a crime to carry more than $10,000, but it is a federal offense not to declare currency or monetary instruments totaling $10,000 or more to a CBP officer upon entry or exit from the U.S. or to conceal it with intent to evade reporting requirements. Failure to declare may result in seizure of the currency and/or arrest. An individual may petition for the return of currency seized by CBP officers, but the petitioner must prove that the source and intended use of the currency was legitimate.

And I always recommend that anyone whose currency has been seized should contact a lawyer to draft a petition for return of the currency. So if you have had currency seized from Customs do not try to respond yourself but hire our firm, because we know what we are doing and have successfully handled many cases like yours. If you have questions, please give us a call at (734) 855-4999.

CBP Seizes Money at Texas Port of Entry

We bring these cases to our reader’s attention not because many honest people find themselves with thousands of dollars hidden underneath their vehicle’s floorboards in a secret compartment (although it has happened to some of my honest clients), but because they do allow me to bring to the public’s attention the laws surrounding the transportation of more than $10,000 in money across the border and seizure of that money.

Customs and Border Protection, in a recent news releaseCBP Seizes Money Texas Port Of Entry discusses the seizure of $80,000 as a result of a failed smuggling attempt to take the cash out of the country in a

concealed compartment and without filing a currency report disclosing the source of the money and intended use of the money. Thus, it was seized and the driver arrested for smuggling.

The news release states as follows:

CBP currency detector canines searched the vehicle and alerted to the floor. CBP officers and Border Patrol agents continued their search and located a hidden compartment in the floor of the vehicle. They removed multiple tape-wrapped bundles of money in the compartment.

If this individual is found not guilty of a crime, then he faces the ¬†potentially difficult task of proving a legitimate source and legitimate intended use of the money.¬†In this case, we could give the man the benefit of the doubt and presume the legitimate source is the proceeds the sale of valuable pieces of art to an eccentic U.S. art collector and the intended use, perhaps he was intending to open a small restaurant in Mexico City. That’s just my guess, and yes, I have handled more bizarre but true cases.

If we assume he proves these two things, then this situation is regrettable for him and completely avoidable. But now, even if criminal charges are ultimately not filed or if he is ultimately found not guilty of a crime, he will still face civil forfeiture of the money and, if he wants it back, will have to fight for its return administratively, or in the courts.

That brings me to the next point:

If you have had currency seized from Customs, do not go it alone. Get the advice of an attorney who knows what he is doing. If you do not, you might only make the situation worse by handling it on your own or hiring a lawyer who doesn’t regularly handle these cases.

To inform yourself, please read the various articles I have written on this and related topics. But do not let it replace the advice of attorney who is familiar with the law and your particular circumstances. If you have questions, please give us a call at (734) 855-4999.

U.S. Customs Money Seizure of $460,000 in Smuggled Currency

CBP reports that a money smuggling attempt in Nogales, Arizona, was stopped. This story looks similar in dollar amount — $464,00 seized – amount as a money seizure by¬†U.S. Customs and Border Protection¬†near the Port of Laredo, which I blogged about here.

Us Customs 460k Smuggled Money Seizure
Picture of currency hidden in a nightstand.

This time, though, instead of the money apparently being hidden in the vehicle itself, it looks like it was hidden in a nightstand. Either way, hiding it is most likely going to result in a charge of smuggling, which is basiscally what bulk cash smuggling amounts to.  This resulted in a seizure of the vehicle and the money itself.

For more information on money seizures by U.S. Customs, the reporting requirements, structuring violations, bulk cash smuggling, and how to get seized currency back, please visit our page devoted to discussion of currency seizures, and also read these articles:

And of course, if you have had your money seized by U.S. Customs and Border Protection, do not delay and call our office immediately at (734) 855-4999! You can also fill out our form and we will contact you, or drop us an e-mail by visiting our Contact page.

Trademark Infringement: Importing Gray Market Goods and Seizure by Customs

Importers purchasing products from abroad may find that they bought more than they bargained for if the merchandise bears a trademark or trade name.¬† For the protection of registered U.S. trademarks and trade names U.S. Customs and Border Protection (“CBP” or “Customs”)¬†limits the admissibility of foreign trademarks or trade names ((Sometimes collectively called “marks” here)) if they appear virtually identical to those already registered in the US. Ultimately,¬†Customs may seize and forfeit imported gray market goods and impose fines and penalties on the importer. 19 CFR 133.23.

Gray Market Goods Defined

Gray market goods are articles manufactured abroad that bear either a genuine trademark or trade name that is either identical to, or substantially indistinguishable from, a trademark or trade name owned and recorded by a United States citizen or corporation. 19 CFR 133.23(a). The concept can be a bit confusing, but key to understanding is to remember that gray market goods bear a legitimate trademark or trade name but are imported into the U.S. without the consent of the owner of the U.S. trademark.  In other words, when a trademark or trade name has been applied to merchandise for use in a foreign country but are imported into the United States, then the goods bearing that trade mark or trade name are considered gray market goods.

Container Ship

The term gray market goods is used to distinguish them from goods that might be sold on black market; gray market goods are sold through legal but unauthorized or unintended channels of commerce. Gray market goods are different from counterfeit goods by the genuineness of their trade mark or trade name; counterfeit goods carry a trademark or trade name which the law calls “spurious.” Sometimes used or refurbished goods fall in the category of gray market goods, and particular laws apply to their lawful importation.

Restricted Entry for Certain Gray Market Goods

Trademarks ¬†and trade names of U.S. owners are entitled to protection against imports of gray market goods under two conditions.¬† First, the U.S. owner must register its mark with CBP through the Intellectual Property Rights e-Recordation (IPRR) system. Second, the U.S. trademark and the foreign trademark must be owned by two different people or companies ((Furthermore, the companies cannot subject to common ownership or common control — such as parent companies and subsidiaries, etc.)).¬† The satisfaction of these conditions subjects all incoming gray market goods to “restricted” scrutiny, and Customs identifies them as such in its IPRR database; if the conditions ¬†have not been satisfied, the goods are deemed non-restricted.

CBP will almost invariably detain restricted gray market goods for up to 30 days; and what transpires within that time will ultimately determine their seizure and eventual forfeiture or their release. 19 CFR §§ 133.23, 133.25.

Due to a counterfeit’s total lack of authenticity, the statutory penalties for attempting to import a good bearing counterfeit mark are more severe than those for attempting to import an infringing gray good. For the most part, however, the procedures for determining whether an allegedly counterfeit mark should be released or seized do not differ from those of gray goods, set forth below. 19 CFR 133.21.

The Road to Release

When a gray good is detained, the importer bears the burden of establishing that its mark fits one of the exceptions, such as showing that the foreign trademark or trade name was applied under the authority of the foreign owner who is the same as the U.S. owner; or, the foreign and domestic goods on which the marks or names are  identical physically and materially. The rationale of this difference-demanding exception may seem counterintuitive; however, the objective of grayRoadmarket rules is to prevent an influx of products which will cause customer confusion. If the marks or names of the products are nearly identical, as is always the case with gray market goods, their physical or material components must also be so similar that the average buyer in the marketplace is not likely to be confused as to the source of the products. 19 CFR 133.23(d). Showing the the imported goods qualify for one these exceptions allows Customs to release them.

A key to successfully challenging detention is requesting a sample of seized or detained merchandise suspected, or alleged, to bear a counterfeit or infringing trademark.

The Road to Seizure

Although this article does not deal with counterfeits directly, it is worthy mentioning that harsher penalties await counterfeit items. CBP has the authorization to obliterate the counterfeit mark or name and destroy the goods if there is no safe way to recycle them. 19 CFR 133.21. CBP may also impose fines on individuals who aid or direct the importation of goods bearing a counterfeit mark or name with the intent of public distribution. The first fine will not be more than the amount the goods would have had if they were genuine. For the second and every subsequent seizure, the fine will not exceed twice that amount. 19 CFR 133.27.

Bearing in mind the goals of preventing customer confusion and ensuring imported are products safe, CBP is authorized to take certain steps to ensure that infringing goods never reach the channels of commerce. An importer’s failure show the applicability of the foregoing exceptions within the 30 day detention period will trigger seizure and forfeiture proceedings. 19 CFR 133.23(f). Additionally, within the 30 day window, CBP may alert the U.S. owner of the presence of the gray goods to obtain assistance in determining whether the gray goods infringe upon the trademark or trade name of the U.S. owner. The U.S. owner may then procure a sample of the imported goods for a more detailed examination. 19 CFR 133.25. If CBP, aided by the efforts of the U.S. owner, finds that the gray goods infringe upon the trademark or trade name of the U.S. owner, it may seize the goods and commence with forfeiture proceedings. 19 CFR 133.23(f).

Still Hope

In the event of seizure and forfeiture, the importer retains its rights to contest the seizure and forfeiture, including the right to samples of seized merchandise and to petition Customs for relief from the forfeiture. Petitions for Relief and/or lawsuits in the federal district court’s can raise important issues and challenge the basis for seizure by, among other issues, contesting whether the¬†goods are, in fact, gray market goods, whether they differ in quality, whether there is likelihood of confusion, the legitimacy of the source, the authority under which the trademark was applied, and others.

If your goods have been seized or forfeited, or if you are are importing goods bearing a trademark or trade name which is similar to one already registered in the U.S., it is in your best interest to obtain the advice of an attorney with experience in Customs laws and the laws surrounding intellectual property. As you can see, the process of clearing an item through the border can be a nuanced process in which time constraints and complex factual questions play a critical role.

Feel free to use this article to supplement your own knowledge, but do not let it serve as a substitute for legal counsel familiar with the various restrictions and exceptions of the law. Please do not hesitate to contact our office to assist you in taking the next step.